How the lockdown situation has impacted on students’ career

The new pandemic of 2020, COVID-19, has enough disrupted education, career. The govt. of states had decided to close the schools, colleges and universities in this lockdown. Also, the reopening of these are very uncertain. Due to this lockdown situation, almost 600 millions of learners around the world are suffering with an uncertain career.

The career is suffering for lockdown situation

Table of Contents

  1. Effects on education
  2. Effects on graduates
  3. Effects on IT industries
  4. Effects on young researchers
  5. Effects on economy
  6. Solutions
    1. Guidelines from universities
    2. Online certification courses
    3. Work from home
  7. Conclusion

Effects on Education

Firstly, due to the closedown situations; some institutions have decided to take a class on online platforms such as Zoom, Webex etc to maintain the flow of study. Besides, taking online assessments and assignments. But, the yearly or semester-wise examination procedure has been stopped. Likewise, a question mark has been put on the board examinations, entrance examinations for engineering, medical, nursing etc., competitive exams and on the admissions procedure.

Effects on graduates

Lockdown impacts on graduates

COVID-19 has been marked as the most impactful event of the century. Colleges and universities are also in stress about the placement season as when the situation will be normal is not known. Majority of the students had been waiting for job interviews before the lockdown. Also, those who are placed are still in a confusion that whether the companies will honour the offers given the fact that the duration of the lockdown and the contours of its graded nuanced and staggered withdrawal are not known. Moreover, the recruitment exams like UPSC, SSC are also have been postponed.

Effects on IT industries

Some of the renowned companies had declared to stop hike and promotions to their employees. But, they have also made decisions to honour all the job offers. Many, companies have been postponed hiring employees and wait till the market value rises up after lockdown lifted. After that, they will start visiting campus and hiring students. In these circumstances, there is no option except waiting for the final year students. Moreover, many companies have announced to make a pay-cut of employees.

Effects on young researchers

One of the most crisis of COVID-19 is our doctoral students. Those who have devoted years with their hard work and consistency find that their opportunities are disappeared suddenly. Doctoral fellows of national-level institutions get a fellowship of 31,000 per month for the first two years and 35,000 per month for the last three years in their 5 years degree. So, those who have completed their degrees are stuck due to the universities in abroad are closed. Also, they are not getting any support from their parent laboratories as institutional sources are limited. Moreover, the fellows from other countries are stuck in without any assignments and they are unpaid.

Effects on economy

IMF has been estimated that the global GDP loss due to pandemic could be of 9 trillion dollars. Maybe you are thinking about how much the economy and career is related? Well it’s quite much related. GDP loss is the impactful threat to the industries which will also freeze the recruitment.

It is reported by CMIE that almost 27 million youth had lost their job in this lockdown situation.


Career has been seized. In this situation, industries and institutions have decided to fight against this pandemic. Some fruitful solutions have been taken out.

Guidelines from universities

Though, the govt. have not decided anything some of the universities have decided to look forward to the students’ and institutions’ well being. However, UGC has already published their guidelines for the decisions should be taken for the evaluation of marks and examinations. Also, they have proposed to start the new session from September instead of July. Meanwhile, students are advised to learn from the Government’s e-learning platform MHRD. The ministry has taken this initiative to ensure that students could learn in this pandemic. Virtual labs have also been launched. Meanwhile, AICTE has also launched 49 free e-learning courses to ensure students improve their skills and make them employable.

Online certification courses

Not only the e-learning platforms but the big industries also announced their paid course as free and flexible for students especially. Like, Google, AWS, IBM are providing their free courses with certification in this pandemic situations. Moreover, the online platforms like Coursera, Udemy have also launched their free courses so that students can learn remotely.

Work from home


Firstly, lockdown due to the pandemic has made the term ‘WFH’ or work from home so popular. Industries are willing to hire employees in a work from home fashion. The industries have got remote working more productive than the usual on-site working. Even some companies have declared to continue this trend and make this permanent. It has been so beneficiary that Google, Dell, Logitech have decided to continue this till the end of the year. So, business are adapting remote work. Even, work from home is concerned as the new normal.

Apart from that, online work from home internships are allowed by UGC during lockdown. Several IITs and IIMs are encouraging students to work on online assignments and internships.


From the past till now human being is facing challenges. But we never stopped rather keep innovating. So, treat this pandemic situation as a blessing from God. We should utilize this huge period to increase our knowledge skills and make us enough eligible. Yes, now don’t waste your time and keep debugging. Try to make things from whatever we are getting. So, stay home, stay safe and keep nourishing yourself.

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Eco-friendly Sustainable Fashion- a worth investing for big industries

Let’s be honest, our environment getting worse each day, right? From the past few years global warming, air pollution, climate change etc. have become our daily language. We should reduce our waste and recycling the used wastes to save our earth.

What about our clothes? Is there any link between clothes and our environment? The answer is, of course, they are linked.

Interesting Facts…

Do you know that 2,700 Lts water are required to make 1 cotton t-shirt which is enough to drink for a person for 2.5 years. Also, 2 billions of cotton t-shirts are sold every year. Almost 93% of used clothes end up in landfills. 60% of the fibres used in clothing are not bio-degradable. So, it’s not surprising that the fashion industry is the 2nd most polluting industry in the world after oil and gas.

Then what to do? We can’t leave wearing clothes. That’s why sustainable fashion is the answer.

What is Ethical or Sustainable fashion?…

The term “sustainable” or “ethical” fashion is also referred to as “slow fashion”. Moreover, it’s a complex issue that sustainable fashion requires the full life cycle of the product starting from the design, sourcing till the production procedure. However, sustainable fashion is the most considerate of humanity and the environment. Likewise, it reduces the environmental impact wherever possible. Find interesting? So, the following are the reasons why sustainable fashion matters.

Why Sustainable fashion matters?

1)Saves Natural Resources:

It has been explored from a recent study that a input of 98 million tons is required annually for making clothes. Moreover, an endless list of synthetic fibres, fertilisers, chemicals needed to dye and finish fabric and it’s surprising to know, for every 10,000 tons of Econyl raw material, we are able to:

2)Reduces Carbon Footprint:

The thing is that the vast majority of our beloved clothes are petroleum-based and made from fossil fuels, polyester, acrylic & nylon. So, fashion industry emits a huge amount of greenhouse gases per year. Whereas, sustainable brands are made of natural resources. Moreover, organic fibres like linen, hemp, organic cotton & TENCEL are biodegradable.

3) Saves water & animal lives:

Firstly, organic cotton reduces water consumption by 91% as opposed to conventional cotton. Likewise, fibres like linen, hemp, REFIBRA & recycled fibres like recycled cotton requires little amount of water.

Additionally, it’s estimated that leather industry is killing 430 million animals per year. The cruelty-free alternative is the sustainable fashion industry.

4) Healthier for people & planet:

It is estimated that around 8,000 different synthetic chemicals are used to dye, bleach and wet process garments. Moreover, those cause diseases or even deaths among farmers and inflict serious birth defects on forthcoming generation. Similarly our skin absorbs the chemicals used in the clothes. So, before you put in new clothes make sure you have washed it. Also, check the chemical content certification label like OEKO-TEX, GOTS or BLUESIGN.

Now, think about it do you want a greener wardrobe?

Sustainable clothes are made off…

Our sustainable clothes are not made out of synthetic fibers like,  nylon, polyester or acrylic. Rather those are made from eco-friendly fibers which are natural resources like, wood pulp, coconut, bananas, jute, hemp and pineapples as well. Similarly,the resources can be a mix of both natural and synthetic fibers. Also, they can be decomposed at a less span of time.

Do you know?…

‘The Next Black’ is a documentary film which is about the future of clothing-Sustainability.

7 forms of sustainable fashion…

Firstly, when we have started giving importance to sustainable fashion it was noticed that there are many forms of it. Green Strategy’s Anna Brismar was the first one who have identified the seven main forms of sustainable fashion, it’s production and consumption. It’s shown below.

Life cycle of clothes…

The following is a pictorial view that illustrates the life cycle of clothes, from product design, raw material and fiber generation, fabric production, cutting, tailoring, transport, storage & sales, use, repair, reuses & redesign by the consumers and finally textile recycling, waste generation & incineration.

Is this affordable?…

Now coming to point of the big factor for every industry-affordability. Hear the voice of fashion. It’s true that sustainable fashion would necessarily cost more than the traditional fast fashion. But, someone who is buying a hand-spun, hand-woven or hand-dyed outfit were to understand the level of work that goes into making it by the artisans and their families. So, sustainable fashion cannot be equated with price. It’s real value is the impact a consumer can have on human lives through their purchase.

Worthy investment for big industries…

It is good to know that, over the last decade, a number of brands in the fashion industry have making the change in the fashion industry. The leaders like Stella McCartney, Raven Lily, Akola, Reformation, Patagonia & Apolis are changing their industry works in order to protect our environment and to take care of the workers.

Stella McCartney

Raven Lily





Brands involve in sustainable fashion…

  1. Levi’s
  2. AND
  3. Espirit
  4. Global Desi

Apart from these brands, many retails have also changed their own collections made out of sustainable fibers. An Austrian company produces a certain variety called EcoVero, is made out of wood pulp. This fiber puts 50% less strain on environment and also can be decomposed in few monthes.

Program Termination in C

Program Termination means the end of the previously happening event. In our today’s article, we are going to discuss the termination of the C program. The simple way to terminate the C program is to use the return after the end of the main function. Likewise, a program can also be terminated using the exit function. Besides, a program can also be terminated by signals. The abort function generates a signal which stops the program.

What is the signal?

The signal is an interrupt which causes an exception situation to an executing program. Some of the signals report an error, a reference to an invalid memory address.

The GNU C library contains a variety of signals that make an abort function to stop the execution of the program.

Different Kinds Of Program Termination In C:

  • Normal Termination: Normal termination refers to normal termination of a program by calling exit. Returning from the main function is the same as calling exit and the value that returns the main function is used as the argument to exit. Syntax: void exit(int status). Status is the program’s exit status which becomes part of the program termination status.
  • Exit Status: When a program exits it returns to its parent process for termination using the exit status. The arguments of this exit status can be between 0 to 255 causing the exiting process. The status value is truncated to eight bits. But, there is a certain convention that is followed by every program were to end the process. The argument value to pass is either 1 or 0. 1 for failure and 0 for the success. This existing convention makes sense. Also, the exit value 128 is used to indicate failure to execute another program in a subprocess.
    • But, this is not a universally accepted convention. It doesn’t work to use the value of errno as the exit status for the reason it can exceed 255. It is declared in the file <stdlib.h>. There are two macros one is EXIT_SUCCESS and another one is EXIT_FAILURE used to define the successful completion and unsuccessful completion of the program respectively.
  • Cleanup on Exit: If normal termination happens the program can arrange its own cleanup function on exit. it is more robust to make a cleanup invisible to the application, by setting this function in the library itself using on_exit or atexit. Syntax: int atexit(void (*fun)(void)). the atexit() function registers the function fun to be called in normally termination. The function takes no arguments. It returns 0 on success and non-zero in failure.

Again, int on_exit(void (*fun)(int status, void *arg), void *arg) where it takes two arguments. One is the function fun and the other is arg pointer. It takes two values of arguments on the successful execution.


void fun(void)
       puts(“Hey, new programmer “);
int main(void)


1Hey, new programmer

  • Aborting a Program: A program can be terminated using the abort function. This function is defined in the header <stdlib.h>. Syntax: void abort(void). This abort function takes abnormal program termination. This function doesn’t execute cleanup functions registered with atexit or on_exit. It terminates the process by raising a SIGABRT signal. Due to this, the program includes a signal handler.
  • Termination Internals:  _exit function is the primitive used for process termination by the exit. The header file which includes this function is <unistd.h>. Syntax: void _exit(int status). When this function is called it doesn’t execute cleanup functions registered with atexit or on_exit.
  • Again, void _Exit(int status) which is declared in <stdlib.h>.


  • Book: The Complete Reference C
  • Book: Let Us C
  • Book: The Rudiments of Computer Science

Direction of Stack in C programming language

We can know the moving direction of the stack. In our previous article, we have already gained the knowledge memory layout in the C programming language which is the basic need of today’s article.

So, in this article, we will discuss on the code to check the movement of the stack. Which is nothing but whether the stack is growing in the upward or in the downward direction?

The growing direction of the stack is a variable. It depends on the code and the kind of the compiler. Compiler to compiler it varies. The compiler is free to place all the local variable in the stack in any order.

In order to determine the growth of the stack, we need to compare two variable addresses from two different activation frames which have been implemented in this code. When a subroutine is called the memory from the local variable comes from the stack of the process. In case of dynamic memory allocation, it comes from the heap area of the process. Local memory is allocated from the stack when a function is called.

So, now to check the growth of the stack we need the following steps:

  • stackgrowth:

This function is used here two compare two different local address to check the growth of the stack whether it is upward or downward. The function’s own local variable is declared inside the function stackgrowth(). It takes one parameter that is the first local address and returns integer type data.

stackgrowth(int *lc1)

  • Second local address variable has been declared.
    int lc2;
  • The address of the second location is displayed on the screen using the %u format specifier. It prints unsigned decimal integer.
printf("\n Address of local2 : [%u]", &lc2);
  • In the main function, the address of the first local variable is declared and it is printed the same as we printed the address of the second local variable.
int lc1; 
printf("\n Address of local1 : [%u]", &lc1);
  • In the stackgrowth() function now we need to compare the address of the two local variable. If the address of the local variable declared in the main function is less than the local variable that is declared inside the function then the direction of the stack is growing downwards and if the reverse happens then the direction of the stack is growing upwards. The comparison is done using the if-else condition.
if(lc1 < &lc2) 
printf("\n\n ***Stack is growing downwards.***\n\n");
printf("\n\n ***Stack is growing upwards.***\n\n");
  • Now inside the main function, the function stackgrowth() is called to access the output.

The following is the code:

#include <stdio.h>
void stackgrowth(int *lc1)
int lc2;
printf("\n Address of local2 : [%u]", &lc2);
if(lc1 < &lc2)
printf("\n\n ***Stack is growing downwards.***\n\n");
printf("\n\n ***Stack is growing upwards.***\n\n");
int main( )
int lc1;
printf("\n Address of local1 : [%u]", &lc1);
return 0;


Address of local1: [6487580]
Address of local2: [6487516]

***Stack is growing upwards.***


The above output may vary from compiler to compiler. As we know that the direction of the stack movement is solely dependent on the platform.


  • Book: The Complete Reference C
  • Book: Let Us C
  • Book: The Rudiments of Computer Science